Daesh attempts to convince potential recruits that they are alienated and marginalized from their own families, communities, and countries. Push and pull factors work to separate an individual from society while offering the caliphate as a solution to this isolation.
Marginalization and alienation due to lack of acceptance and integration of Muslims push people into radicalization.
Historical grievances from past colonization feed into feelings that the West is out to destroy Islam.
Increased secularization may drive some to seek out spiritual meaning, without understanding the reliability of their sources
Seeking a Spiritual Meaning
Discontented in an increasingly secularized world, some people seek more than material fulfillment, and actively search for spiritual meaning.
Bleak Future Outook
Faced with bleak economic opportunities and the prospect of not being able to provide for themselves or their families, potential recruits feel a sense of uncertainty when it comes to being able to lead a dignified life.
Suffering and Injustices in the Muslim World
Many young Muslims are motivated to redress the injustices faced by Muslims elsewhere who are suffering because of longstanding and enduring conflicts, such as those in Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Chechnya
Us Against the Rest of the World
Historical grievances resulting from past colonialization feed into feelings that the West is out to destroy Islam, and they blame Christians and Jews (“Crusaders”) for all their past and current actions.
Disaffected by the Political Status Quo
Fed up with authoritarian or oppressive regimes’ active suppression of dissent that leaves the masses with no political voice and without representation in the power structure.
Marginalization and Alienation
Perceive a lack of social integration and acceptance of Muslims in the West due to widespread civil liberties violations and ethnic or religious discrimination. Feeling of being cut of from community and society.
Disconnect From Western Culture
Unable to negotiate between Western cultural mores, which are perceived to be immoral (drinking, drugs, sex) and inconsistent with Islamic values, many struggles with how to live out their faith in the West.
Poor Examples of Glory, Heroes and Importance
Lack of positive representation, heroic narratives, and images of Muslims in the media leads to a dearth of role models for Muslims to emulate. Young Muslims, particularly, may feel that there are no icons to look up to.
Claim to be the “One True Islam”
Promises the recruit that joining will make them a better Muslim and that Daesh’s ideological underpinnings will fulfill their desire for the “ultimate truth.”
Chance for Prosperity
Portrays the caliphate as a land of promise and economic opportunity. Every person’s role is deemed active and indispensable to the state-building operation, and in turn, each person can lead a life of prosperity.
Brings Justice and Honor Back to Islam
Channels frustration by providing a solution to avenge the plight of Muslims and by offering each member a chance to fight on behalf of disenfranchised Muslim populatons
Offers Empowerment Through Successful Resistance
The time has come for Muslims to reassert their glorious past, beginning with retribution for past injustices inflicted by Western powers.
A Chance To Create A Just Political System
Offers a chance to change their political circumstances and reclaim their individual power, by being part of a new model of good “Islamic” governance.
Promises Companionship, Brotherhood and Sisterhood
Promises a social network of like-minded people who will offer companionship, inclusion, and respect, and the social benefits of belonging to an elite group.
Opportunity to Live a Pure Life
Opportunity to live in an ideal society, where one can preserve and develop their Islamic identity and values by living among fellow pure Muslims.
Heroism and Importance
A chance to experience glory, to be important, to mater, to be remembered and rewarded—both in this life and in Paradise.